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Hoan, E. & MacDonald, G. (in press). Personality and well-being across and within relationship status. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. PDF

Gauvin, S., Maxwell, J. A., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (in press). Love lost in translation: Avoidant individuals inaccurately perceive their partners’ positive emotions during love conversations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.


Pepping, C. A., Girme, Y. U., Cronin, T. J., & MacDonald, G. (2024). Diversity in singlehood experiences: Testing an attachment theory model of sub-groups of singles. Journal of Personality. PDF

Park, Y., Girme, Y. U., & MacDonald, G. (2024). Three methodological approaches to studying singlehood. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 18, e12884. PDF

Girme, Y. U. Park, Y. & MacDonald, G. (2023). Coping or thriving? Reviewing intrapersonal, interpersonal, and societal factors associated with well-being in singlehood from a within-group perspective. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 18, 1097-1120. PDF


Park, Y., MacDonald, G., Impett, E. A., & Neel, R. (2023). What social lives do single people want? A person-centered approach to identifying profiles of social motives among singles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 125, 219–236. PDF


Hill Roy, L., Park, Y., & MacDonald, G. (2023). Age moderates the link between relationship desire and life satisfaction among singles. Personal Relationships, 30, 893-912. PDF


Park, Y. & MacDonald, G. (2023). Necessities and luxuries in satisfying single lives. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 40, 937-954. PDF

Park, Y., Sanscartier, S., Impett, E. A., Algoe, S. B., Leonhardt, N. D., Schrage, K. M., Carmichael, C. L., Collins, N. L., Conte, F., De Rosa, O., Ficca, G., Fredrickson, B. L., Harris, P. E., Keltner, D., West, T. N., & MacDonald, G. (2023). Meta-analytic evidence that attachment insecurity is associated with less frequent experiences of discrete positive emotions. Journal of Personality, 91, 1223-1238. PDF

Joel, S., Maxwell, J. A., Khera, D., Peetz, J., Baucom, B. R. W., & MacDonald, G. (2023). Expect and you shall perceive: People who are happier with their relationships expect and in turn perceive more relationship effort from their partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 124, 1230–1255. PDF


Park, Y., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (2023). Partnership status and satisfaction with work-life balance. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 32, 118-127PDF


Cantarella, I. A., Spielmann, S. S., Partridge, T., MacDonald, G., Joel, S., & Impett, E. A. (2023). Validating the Fear of Being Single Scale for Individuals in Relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 40, 2969-2979. PDF


Alaei, R., Rule, N. O., & MacDonald, G. (2022). Individuals’ favorite songs’ lyrics reflect their attachment style. Personal Relationships, 29, 778-791. PDF


Park, Y., Page-Gould, E., & MacDonald, G. (2022). Satisfying singlehood as a function of age and cohort: Satisfaction with being single increases with age after midlife. Psychology and Aging, 37, 626-636. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Park, Y. (2022). Associations of attachment avoidance and anxiety with life satisfaction, satisfaction with singlehood, and desire for a romantic partner. Personal Relationships, 29, 163-176. PDF

Park, Y. & MacDonald, G. (2022). Single and partnered individuals' sexual satisfaction as a function of sexual desire and activities: Results using a sexual satisfaction scale demonstrating measurement invariance across partnership status. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 51, 547–564. PDF


Joel, S. & MacDonald, G. (2021). We’re not that choosy: Emerging evidence of a progression bias in romantic relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 25, 317-343 . PDF

Hobson, N. M., Kim, J. J., & MacDonald, G. (2021). A camel through the eye of a needle: Prosperity gospel leads to financially risky behaviors by inflating optimism and arousing positive emotions. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 13, 416–424. PDF

MacDonald, G., Park, Y., Hayes, A., Vanasse-Grosdidier, I., & Park, S. W. (2021). Quality of alternatives positively associated with interest in opening up a relationship. Personal Relationships, 28, 538-566. PDF

Park, Y., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (2021). Singles’ sexual satisfaction is associated with more satisfaction with singlehood and less interest in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 47, 741-752. PDF

Park, Y., Impett, E. A., Spielmann, S., & Joel, S., & MacDonald, G. (2021). Lack of intimacy prospectively predicts breakup. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 12, 442-451. PDF

Debrot, A., Stellar, J., MacDonald, G., Keltner, D., & Impett, E. A. (2021). Is Touch in Romantic Relationships Universally Beneficial for Psychological Well-Being? The Role of Attachment Avoidance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 47, 1495-1509. PDF

Joel, S., Stanton, C. E., Page-Gould, E., & MacDonald, G. (2021). One foot out the door: Stay/leave ambivalence predicts day-to-day fluctuations in commitment and intentions to end the relationship. European Journal of Social Psychology, 51, 294-312. PDF

Park, Y., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (2021). Generalizability of results from dyadic data: Participation of one versus two members of a romantic couple is associated with breakup likelihood. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 47, 232-240. PDF

Locke, K. D., MacDonald, G., Barni, D., Reyes, J. A., Morio, H., Vargas-Flores, J. D., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., Mastor, K. A., & Kamble, Shanmukh (2021). Communal motives towards parents and perceived self-parent agreement. Collabra: Psychology, 7, 22165. PDF
Crawford, B., Muhlert, N., MacDonald, G., & Lawrence, A. D. (2020). Brain structure correlates of expected social threat and reward. Scientific Reports, 10, 1-13. PDF
Schrage, K., Maxwell, J. A., Impett, E. A., Keltner, D., & MacDonald, G. (2020). Effects of verbal and nonverbal communication of affection on avoidantly attached partners’ emotions and message receptiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46, 1567-1580. PDF
Locke, K. D., Barni, D., Morio, H., MacDonald, G., Mastor, K. A., Vargas-Flores, J. D., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., Reyes, J. A., Kamble, S., & Ortiz, F. (2020). Culture moderates the normative and distinctive impact of parents and similarity on young adults’ partner preferences. Cross-Cultural Research, 54, 435-461. PDF

Muise, A., Kim, J. J., Debrot, A., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (2020). Sexual nostalgia as a response to unmet sexual and relational needs: The role of attachment avoidance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 46, 1538-1552. PDF
Alaei, R., Lévêque, G. MacDonald, G., & Rule, N. (2020). Accuracy and bias in first impressions of attachment style from faces. Journal of Personality, 88, 940-949. PDF
Locke, K. D., Mastor, K. A., MacDonald, G., Barni, D., Morio, H., Reyes, J. A., Vargas-Flores, J. D., Ibáñez-Reyes, J., Kamble, S., & Ortiz, F. (2020). Young adults’ partner preferences and parents’ in-law preferences across generations, genders, and nations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 903-920. PDF

Joel, S., Eastwick, P. W., Allison, C., Arriaga, X. B., Baker, Z. G., Bar-Kalifa, E., Bergeron, S., Brock, B., Brumbaugh, C. C., Carmichael, C. L., Chen, S., Clarke, J., Cobb, R. J., Coolsen, M. K., Davis, J., de Jong, D. C., Debrot, A., Derrick, J. L., Eller, J., Estrada, M. J., Faure, R., Finkel, E. J., Fraley, R. C., Gable, S. L., Gadassi, R., Girme, Y. U., Gordon, A. M., Gosnell, C., Hammond, M. D., Hannon, P. A., Harasymchuk, C., Horn, A. B., Impett, E. A., Jamieson, J. P., Keltner, D., Kim, J., Kirchner, J. L., Klewer, E., Kuile T., Kumashiro, M., Larson, G., Lazarus, G., Logan, J. M., Luchies, L., MacDonald, G., Maniaci, M. R., Maxwell, J. A., Mizrahi, M., Molloy, P. R., Muise, A., Niehuis, S., Ogolsky, B. G., Oldham, C. R., Overall, N. C., Perrez, M., Peters, B., Pietromonaco, P. R., Powers, S. I., Prok, T., Pschedetzky-Schochat, R., Rafaeli, E., Reblin, M., Reifman, A., Reiherts, M., Reis, H., Rhoades, G., Rholes, S., Righetti, F., Rodriguez, L., Rogge, R., Rosen, N., Saxbe, D., Sened, H., Simpson, J., Slotter, E. B., Stanley, S., Stocker, S., Surra, C., VanderDrift, L., Vaughn, A., Vicary, A., Visserman, M., & Wolf, S. (2020). Machine learning uncovers the most robust predictors of relationship quality across 43 longitudinal couples studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117, 19061-19071. PDF
Tchalova, K. & MacDonald, G. (2020). Opioid receptor blockade inhibits self-disclosure during a closeness-building social interaction. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 104559. PDF

Spielmann, S.S., Maxwell, J. A., MacDonald, G., Peragine, D., & Impett, E. A. (2020). The predictive effects of fear of being single on physical attractiveness and less selective partner selection strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 37(1), 100-123. PDF

Nunez Segovia, A., Maxwell, J. A., DiLorenzo, M. G., & MacDonald, G. (2019). No strings attached? How attachment orientation relates to the varieties of casual sexual relationships. Personality and Individual Differences, 151, 109455. PDF

Park, Y., Johnson, M., MacDonald, G., & Impett, E. A. (2019). Perceiving gratitude from a romantic partner predicts decreases in attachment anxiety. Developmental Psychology, 55, 2692-2700. PDF

Sanscartier, S. & MacDonald, G. (2019). Healing through community connection? Modeling links between attachment avoidance, connection to the LGBTQ+ community, and internalized heterosexism. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 66, 564-576. PDF

Park, Y., Impett, E. A., MacDonald G., & Lemay, E. P. (2019). Saying "thank you": Partners' expressions of gratitude protect relationship satisfaction and commitment from the harmful effects of attachment insecurity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 117, 773-806. PDF

Park, Y. & MacDonald, G. (2019). Consistency between individuals’ past and current romantic partners' own reports of their personalities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116, 12793-12797. PDF

Pepping, C. A. & MacDonald, G. (2019). Adult attachment and long-term singlehood. Current Opinion in Psychology, 25, 105-109. PDF

Park, Y., Debrot, A., Spielmann, S. S., Joel, S., Impett, E. A., & MacDonald, G. (2019). Distinguishing dismissing from fearful attachment in the association between closeness and commitment. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 10, 563-572. PDF

Joel, S., Impett, E. A., Spielmann, S. S., & MacDonald, G. (2018). How interdependent are stay/leave decisions? On staying in the relationship for the sake of the romantic partner. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115, 805-824. PDF

Pepping, C. A., MacDonald, G., & Davis, P. J. (2018). Toward a psychology of singlehood: An attachment theoretical perspective on long-term singlehood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27, 324-331. PDF

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Page-Gould, E. (2018). Wanting to stay and wanting to go: Unpacking the content and structure of relationship stay/leave decision processes. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9, 631-644. PDF

DiLorenzo, M. G., Chum, G. T., Weidmark, L. V., & MacDonald, G. (2018). Presence of an attachment figure is associated with greater sensitivity to physical pain following mild social exclusion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 9, 595-603. PDF

Joel, S., Plaks, J. E., & MacDonald, G. (2017). Nothing ventured, nothing gained: People anticipate and experience more regret from missed romantic opportunities than from rejection. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36, 305–336. PDF

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Spielmann, S. S. (2017). Motivated use of numerical anchors for judgments relevant to the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 972-985. PDF

Philipp-Muller, A. & MacDonald, G. (2017). Avoidant individuals may have muted responses to social warmth after all: An attempted replication of MacDonald and Borsook (2010). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 70, 272-280. PDF

Maxwell, J. A., Muise, A., MacDonald, G., Day, L. C., Rosen, N. O. & Impett, E. A. (2017). How implicit theories of sexuality shape sexual and relationship well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112, 238-279. PDF

Rain, M., Cilento, E., MacDonald, G., & Mar, R. A. (2017). Adult attachment and transportation into narrative worlds. Personal Relationships, 24, 49-74. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., MacDonald, G., Joel, S., & Impett, E. A. (2016). Longing for ex-partners out of fear of being single. Journal of Personality, 84, 799-808. PDF

Spielmann, S. S. & MacDonald, G. (2016). Nice guys finish first when presented second: Responsive daters are evaluated more positively following exposure to unresponsive daters. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 64, 99-105. PDF

Dane, S., Masser, B., & MacDonald, G. (2015). When "in your face" is not out of place: The effect of timing of sexual orientation disclosure under conditions of contact. PLOS ONE, 10(8): e0135023. PDF

MacDonald, G., Baratta, P., & Tzalizidis, R. (2015). Resisting connection following social exclusion: Rejection by an attractive suitor provokes derogation of an unattractive suitor. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 766-772. PDF

Joel, S., Teper, R., & MacDonald, G. (2014). People overestimate their willingness to reject potential romantic partners by overlooking their concern for others. Psychological Science, 25, 2233-2240. PDF

Gere, J., MacDonald, G., Joel, S., Spielmann, S. S., & Impett, E. A. (2013). The independent contributions of social reward and threat perceptions to romantic commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 961-977. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., MacDonald, G., Maxwell, J. A., Joel, S., Peragine, D., Muise, A., & Impett, E. A. (2013). Settling for less out of fear of being single. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 1049-1073. PDF

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Plaks, J. (2013). Romantic relationships conceptualized as a judgment and decision-making domain. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 461-465. PDF

Gere, J. & MacDonald, G. (2013). Assessing relationship quality across cultures: An examination of measurement equivalence. Personal Relationships, 20, 422-442. PDF

Joel, S., Gordon, A. M., Impett, E.A., MacDonald, G., & Keltner, D. (2013). The things you do for me: Perceptions of a romantic partner's investments promote gratitude and commitment. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1333-1345. PDF
MacDonald, G., Locke, K. D., Spielmann, S. S., & Joel, S. (2013). Insecure attachment predicts ambivalent social threat and reward perceptions in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 30, 647-661. PDF

Maxwell, J. A., Spielmann, S. S., Joel, S., & MacDonald, G. (2013). Attachment theory as a framework for understanding responses to social exclusion. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 444-456. PDF

Nail, P. R., Di Domenico, S. I., & MacDonald, G. (2013). Proposal of a double diamond model of social response. Review of General Psychology, 17, 1-19. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Kogan, A. (2013). Ex appeal: Current relationship quality and emotional attachment to ex-partners. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 175-180. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., Maxwell, J. A., MacDonald, G., & Baratta, P. L. (2013). Don't get your hopes up: Avoidantly attached individuals perceive lower social reward when there is potential for intimacy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 91-107. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., MacDonald, G., & Tackett, J. L. (2012). Social threat, social reward, and regulation of investment in romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 19, 601-622. PDF

MacDonald, G., Marshall, T. C., Gere, J., Shimotomai, A., & July, L. (2012). Valuing romantic relationships: The role of family approval across cultures. Cross Cultural Research, 46, 366-393. PDF

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Plaks, J. E. (2012). Attachment anxiety uniquely predicts regret proneness in close relationship contexts. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 3, 348-355. PDF

Nordgren, L.F., Banas, K., & MacDonald, G. (2011). Empathy gaps for social pain: Why people underestimate the pain of social suffering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 120-128. PDF

Joel, S., MacDonald, G., & Shimotomai, A. (2011). Conflicting pressures on relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals. Journal of Personality, 79, 51-71. PDF

MacDonald, G., Nail, P. R., & Harper, J. (2011). Do people use "reverse psychology?" An exploration of strategic self-anticonformity. Social Influence, 6, 1-14. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Borsook, T.K. (2010). Attachment avoidance and feelings of connection in social interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1122-1125. PDF

Borsook, T.K. & MacDonald, G. (2010). Mildly negative social encounters reduce physical pain sensitivity. Pain, 151, 372-377. PDF

DeWall, C.N., MacDonald, G., Webster, G.D., Masten, C., Baumeister, R.F., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D.R., Stillman, T.F., Tice, D.M., & Eisenberger, N.I. (2010). Acetaminophen reduces social pain: Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science, 21, 931-937. PDF

Gere, J., & MacDonald, G. (2010). An update of the empirical case for the Need to Belong. Journal of Individual Psychology, 66, 93-115. PDF

Dane, S. K. & MacDonald, G. (2009). Heterosexuals' acceptance predicts same-sex attracted young adults' well-being beyond ingroup support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26, 659-677. PDF

Spielmann, S. S., MacDonald, G., & Wilson, A. E. (2009). On the rebound: Focusing on someone new helps anxiously attached individuals let go of ex-partners. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35, 1382-1394. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Lipp, O. V. (2008). Mortality salience eliminates attentional bias for fear-relevant animals. Motivation and Emotion, 32, 243-250. PDF

MacDonald, G. (2008). Use of pain threshold reports to satisfy social needs. Pain Research and Management, 13(4), 309 - 319. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Jessica, M. (2006). Family approval as a constraint in dependency regulation: Evidence from Australia and Indonesia. Personal Relationships, 13, 183-194. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Kingsbury, R. (2006). Does physical pain augment anxious attachment? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 23, 291-304. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Leary, M.R. (2005). Why does social exclusion hurt? The relationship between social and physical pain. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 202-223. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Leary, M.R. (2005). Roles of social pain and defense mechanisms in response to social exclusion: Reply to Panksepp (2005) and Corr (2005). Psychological Bulletin, 131, 237-240. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Nail, P.R. (2005). Attitude change and the public-private attitude distinction. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 15-28. PDF

MacDonald, G., Nail, P.R., & Levy, D.A. (2004). Expanding the scope of the social response context model. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26, 77-92. PDF

MacDonald, G., Saltzman, J.L., & Leary, M.R. (2003). Social approval and trait self-esteem. Journal of Research in Personality, 37(2), 23-40. PDF

MacDonald, T. K., MacDonald, G., Zanna, M. P. & Fong, G. T. (2000). Alcohol, sexual arousal, and intentions to use condoms in young men: Applying alcohol myopia theory to risky sexual behavior. Health Psychology, 19, 290-298. PDF

Nail, P. R., MacDonald, G. & Levy, D. A. (2000). Proposal of a four-dimensional model of social response. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 454-470. PDF

MacDonald, G., Zanna, M. & Holmes, J. (2000). An experimental test of the role of alcohol in relationship conflict. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 182-194. PDF

Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., MacDonald, G. & Ellsworth, P. C. (1998). Through the looking glass darkly? When self-doubts turn into relationship insecurities. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 1459-1480. PDF

Journal Articles


MacDonald, G. & Jensen-Campbell, L. A. (2011). Social pain: Neuropsychological and health implications of loss and exclusion. Washington, DC: APA Books.

Edited Books


MacDonald, G. & Girme, Y. U. (in press). Singlehood. In S. Leder Elder (Ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Psychology in the Real World. London, UK: Routledge.

Pepping C. A. & MacDonald, G. (2020).  The influence of attachments in close relationships on mental health.  In J. Kirby & P. Gilbert (Eds.) Making an Impact on Mental Health (pp. 43-70).  New York: Taylor and Francis.

Maxwell, J. A., Muise, A., MacDonald, G., & Impett, E.A. (2019). Implicit Theories of Sexuality Scale. In Milhausen, R., Sakaluk, J. K., Fisher, T., Davis, C.M. & Yarber, W. (Eds). The Handbook of Sexuality-Related Measures (4th ed.). PDF

Tchalova, K. & MacDonald, G. (2017). The interpersonal is the political: The role of social belongingness in emotional experience and political orientation. In R. Kingston, K. Banerjee, J. McKee, Y.C. Chien, & C.C. Vassilious (Eds.), Emotions, Community, and Citizenship: Cross Disciplinary Perspectives (154-175). Toronto, Ont.: University of Toronto Press. Link

Borsook, T. K., & MacDonald, G. (2013). Social pain. In C. N. DeWall (Ed.), Oxford Handbook of Social Exclusion (pp. 163-176). Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Leary, M. R. (2012). Individual differences in self-esteem: A review and theoretical integration. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (2nd ed.) (pp. 354-377). New York: Guilford. Link

MacDonald, G., Borsook, T., & Spielmann, S. S. (2011). Defensive avoidance of social pain via perceptions of social threat and reward. In G. MacDonald & L. A. Jensen-Campbell (Eds.), Social Pain: Neuropsychological and Health Implications of Loss and Exclusion. (pp. 141-160). Washington, DC: APA Books.

MacDonald, G. (2009). Social pain and hurt feelings. In P.J. Corr & G. Matthews (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Personality Psychology (pp.541-555). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PDF

MacDonald, G. & Packer, D.J. (2009). Persuasion. In H. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Human Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. PDF

Nail, P. R. & MacDonald, G. (2007). The social response context model: New directions for social influence theory and research. In A. Pratkanis (Ed.), The Science of Social Influence: Advances and Future Progress (pp.193-221). New York: Psychology Press.

MacDonald, G. (2007).  Self-esteem: A human elaboration of prehuman belongingness motivation. In C. Sedikides & S. Spencer (Eds.), The Self in Social Psychology (pp. 412 - 456). New York: Psychology Press. PDF

Leary, M.R. & MacDonald, G. (2003). Individual differences in trait self-esteem: A theoretical integration. In M. Leary and J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of Self and Identity (pp. 410-418). New York: Guildford Publications.

Book Chapters
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